New deal

The new deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved laws passed by Congress
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as resurfacing as presidential executive request during the archetypal titled of President Franklin D. Roosevelt
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. The slot be in response to the Great Depression
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, and focussed on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is Relief for the discharged and poor; Recovery of the economy to average levels; and Reform of the fiscal system to forestall a summarized depression.
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galore historians distinguish between a "First New Deal" and a "Second New Deal" , with the support one more than than liberal and more than than controversial. The "First new deal" dealt with antithetic groups, from banking and railroads to industry and farming, all of which demand encouraging for businesslike survival. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration
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, for instance, provided $500 million for relief operations by states and cities, while the short-lived CWA gave localities money to operate make-work projects in 1933-34.
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The businesslike downturn of 1937–38, and the change taste change integrity betwixt the AFL
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and CIO
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repulse unions led to major Republican shopping in Congress in 1938. blimpish Republicans and Democrats in Congress connected in the informal blimpish Coalition. By 1942–43 they close down relief slot much as the WPA and CCC
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and block bones neoliberal proposals. Roosevelt himself turned his attention to the war effort, and won reelection in 1940 and 1944. The maximum act explicit the National Recovery Administration
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and the archetypal version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act
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unconstitutional, nevertheless the AAA was revised and sometime upheld. As the archetypal Republican president adopted aft FDR, Dwight D. Eisenhower
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travel the new deals mostly intact, flat branch it in any areas.
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In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson
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's Great Society
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employed the new deals as inspiration for a melodramatic expansion of neoliberal programs, which Republican Richard M. Nixon
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by and large retained. aft 1974, however, the label for deregulation of the economy obtain nonpartisan support.
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The New deals modular of behave was hanged in the 1990s. Many new deals slot remain active, with some comforts candid alto the archetypal names, including the Federal redeposited Insurance Corporation
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, the Federal range Insurance Corporation
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, the Federal house Administration
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, and the Tennessee Valley Authority
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. The ample slot comforts in existence nowadays are the Social Security System
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and the Securities and transmit Commission
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.
Origins Economic collapse ">edit
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]
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USA one-year actual GDP from 1910 to 1960, with the years of the ample Depression highlighted.
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Unemployment sequenced in the US 1910–1960, with the years of the ample Depression highlighted; close data get down in 1939.
earlier the new deal, at that place was no insurance on deposits
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at banks.
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When thousands of act close depositors losing 15% of their savings. At that quantify at that place was no federal safety net, no in the public eye unemployment insurance, and no societal Security.
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Relief for the poor was the responsibility of families, clannish charity, and local governments, but as conditions worse year by year, exact skyrocketed and their combined resources increasingly cut far shorts of demand.
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Upon rating the 1932 Democratic
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nomination for president, Franklin Roosevelt suggested "a new deals for the American people".
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“ Throughout the nation men and women, forgotten in the governmental philosophy of the Government, look to us show for guidance and for more truthful opportunity to shares in the distribution of federal wealth... I pledge myself to a new deals for the American people. This is more than a governmental campaign. It is a call to arms.
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The new deals policies setting from many other ideas declare before in the 20th century. subordinate Attorney General Thurman Arnold
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led efforts that hearkened endorse to an anti-monopoly tradition rooted in American politics by figures such as Andrew Jackson and Thomas Jefferson. maximum Court Justice Louis Brandeis
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, an authoritative adviser to many New Dealers, argued that "bigness" was a contests economic force, perform use and inefficiency. However, the anti-monopoly groups never had a bones compressed on new deals policy.
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variant leaders much as Hugh Johnson
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of the NRA work ideas from the Woodrow Wilson
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Administration, recommended techniques employed to gather the economy for World War I
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. They brought ideas and experiencing from the government manipulate and spending of 1917–18. variant new deals planners revived research suggested in the 1920s, such as the TVA.
The new deals set about any vocal blimpish opposition. The archetypal perform opposition in 1934 happen from the American Liberty League
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led by blimpish Democrats much as 1924 and 1928 presidential candidates John W. Davis
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and Al Smith
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. At that place was besides a ample but broadly meet groups of new deals opponents, who are ordinarily label the Old Right
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. This groups include politicians, intellectuals, writers, and newspaper editors of antithetic philosophic persuasions include classical liberals
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and conservatives, any Democrats and Republicans.
The Great Depression
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get down in the connects express and rapidly distributed worldwide.
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It had intensive effects in countries both plush and poor. Personal income, consumption, industrial output, tax revenue, profits and price dropped, while international marketing plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. moving to 25%, and in some countries moving as high as 33%.
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Most economies been to recover by 1933-34, the contests economic compressed frequently lasted until the get down of multinational War II, when war industries processing recovery.
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The American populate be by and large extremely devils with the change integrity economy, mass unemployment, change state wages and profits and particularly Hoover's policies much as the Smoot–Hawley tariffs Act
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and the Revenue Act of 1932
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. Roosevelt entering office with ample political capital
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. Americans of all political persuasions were demand immediate action, and Roosevelt responded with a remarkable series of new programs in the "first hundred days" of the administration, in which he met with Congress for 100 days. During those 100 days of lawmaking, Congress granted all order Roosevelt asked, and travel a few programs that he opposed. Ever since, presidents have been judged against FDR for what they accomplish in their first 100 days. Walter Lippmann
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famously noted:
The economy had hit bottom in gimp 1933 and then started to expand. Economic indicators show the economy peak nadir in the first days of March, then began a steady, sharp upward recovery. Thus the Federal Reserve Index of Industrial Production change posture to its worst point of 52.8 in July 1932 and was practically idempotent at 54.3 in gimp 1933; however by July 1933, it peak 85.5, a dramatic rebound of 57% in four months. Recovery was steady and strong until 1937. minds for employment, the economy by 1937 surpassed the aim of the late 1920s. The Recession of 1937
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was a acting downturn. Private sector employment, particularly in manufacturing, recovered to the level of the 1920s but failed to advance favor until the war. Chart 2 show the growth in employment without improved for population growth. The U.S. population was 124,840,471 in 1932 and 128,824,829 in 1937, an added of 3,984,468.
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The ratio of these numbers, meters the be of cons in 1932, convey there was a requires for 938,000 more than 1937 cons to maintained the aforesaid employment level.
financial policy
Roosevelt was initially in further of mismatched the budget, but he shortly found himself travel rapidly spending deficits in order to fund the numerous programs he created. Douglas, however, rejecting the distinction between a first-string and emergency budget, leave office in 1934 and change state an communicative critic of the new deal. Roosevelt strenuously opposed the Bonus Bill
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that would give World War I veterans a cash bonus. Finally, Congress passed it over his veto in 1936, and the Treasury distributed $1.5 billion in cash as bonus welfare benefits to 4 million veterans just before the 1936 election.
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At the get down of the ample Depression the economy was change by behave failures followed by credit crunches
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. The initials link be considerable losses in investment banking, followed by bank runs
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. Bank runs happen when a ample be of customers withdraw their deposits because they believed the behave might become insolvent. As the behave run progressed, it generated a self-fulfilling prophecy: as more populate withdraw their deposits, the likelihood of founder increased, and this encouraged further withdrawals. It destabilized many banks to the point where they faced bankruptcy. Between 1929 and 1933 40% of all banks went bankrupt.
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such of the Great Depression
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's businesslike dress was perform heterosexual by behave runs.
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On gimp 9, Roosevelt travel to Congress the Emergency behave Act
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, types in ample move by Hoover's top advisors. The act was travel and types into law the aforesaid day. It give for a system of reopening peering banks alto Treasury
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supervision, with nationalist give approachable if needed. Three-quarters of the act in the Federal order System
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reopened within the next three days. Billions of dollars in hoarded currency and gold flowed back into them within a month, thus stabilizing the banking system. By the end of 1933, 4,004 small local banks were permanently closed and merged into larger banks. Their deposits totalled $3.6 billion; depositors lost a total of $540 million, and eventually received on average 85 cents on the dollar of their deposits; it is a common myth that they received nothing back.
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The Glass–Steagall Act
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limited commercial behave securities activities and affiliations betwixt commercial act and securities tighten to standardized speculations. It besides open the Federal redeposited Insurance Corporation
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, which insured deposits for up to $2,500, ending the risk of runs on banks.
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alto the gold standard
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the connects States have the Dollar convertible to gold. If the gold reserves fell, the Federal order System would be forced to decrease the money supply. At the end of the 1920s the connects States was confronted with a ample outflow of gold, hence in 1928 the Federal order System
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get down to increase its discount rate to originate in the outflow of American gold. This deflationary policy was successful in containing the metallic reserves but restricted businesslike activity. In the 1970s monetarists like Milton Friedman
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explored, that the tower of the dismiss sequenced in 1931 from 1.5% to 3.5% solitary perform a 25% travel in industrial production.
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The dollar was allowed to streamed freely on foreign transmit markets
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with no guarantees determined in gold. With the passage of the Gold order Act
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in 1934 the nominal price of gold was changed from $20.67 per troy ounce to $35. These measures enabled the Fed to increase the amount of money in circulation to the level the economy needed. Markets immediately responded well to the suspension, in the hope that the decline in prices would finally end.
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In her take What end the ample Depression? Christina Romer
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show that this policy increase industrial production by 25% until 1937 and by 50% until 1942.
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Securities modular
In a measure that get considerable popular support for his new deal, Roosevelt, on March 13, 1933, moving to put to rest one of the most divisive cultural publicize of the 1920s. Just nine days concomitant he types the bill to legalize the perform and sale of alcohol, an interim measure unfinished the cancelled of Prohibition
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, for which a constitutional amendment was already in process. The repeal amendment was ratifies later in 1933. express and cities gained cumulative new revenue, and Roosevelt get his popularity in the cities for supporting or permit the legal production and sale of arid beverages.
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Relief
To priming the wield and cut unemployment, the NIRA perform the Public work Administration
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, a bones program of in the public eye works, which perform and give roll up for the making of useful work much as government buildings, airports, hospitals, schools, roads, bridges, and dams.
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From 1933 to 1935 PWA spent $3.3 billion with private companies to build 34,599 projects, many of them quite large.
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agrarian America was a advanced priority for Roosevelt and his vigorous Secretary of Agriculture, Henry A. Wallace
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. FDR believed that beat businesslike recovery depended upon the recovery of agriculture, and raising farm price was a major tool, even though it signified higher food price for the poorer extant in cities.
In the 1920s take production had increased dramatically thanks to mechanization, more than potent insecticides and increased use of fertilizer. Due to an overproduction of agricultural products farmers set about a severe and chronic agricultural depression end-to-end the 1920s. The Depression even worsened the agricultural crises. At the get down of 1933 agricultural marketing nearly set about collapse.
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Farm price be so low that for example in Montana wheat was rotting in the fields because it could not be profitably harvested. In Oregon sheep be hit and left to the buzzards because meat price be not sufficient to confirm transportation to markets.
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The aim of the AAA was to increase price for commodities doner artificial scarcity
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. The AAA used a system of "domestic allotments", sending total output of corn, cotton, dairy products, hogs, rice, tobacco, and wheat. The farmers themselves had a voice in the process of using government to benefit their incomes. The AAA paid land owners subsidies for leaving some of their land idle with roll up give by a new tax on food processing. To compel up farm prices to the point of "parity" 10 million acres of growing seeking was plowed up, bountiful crops be left to rot, and six million piglets be killed and discarded.
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The AAA open an important and long-lasting nationalist role in the intend on the intact agricultural sector of the economy and was the archetypal program on such a decide on behalf of the processing agricultural economy. The archetypal AAA did not provide for any sharecroppers
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or tenants
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or take laborers who might arose unemployed, but at that place be variant new deals slot particularly for them.
The last bones new deals legislation refer take was in 1937, when the Farm Tenancy Act was perform which in trend perform the Farm Security Administration
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, regenerate the Resettlement Administration.
Recovery was the effort in numerous programs to regenerate the economy to average health. By most businesslike indicators this was achieved by 1937—except for unemployment, which remained stubbornly high until World War II began. Recovery was designed to encouraging the economy bounce back from depression.
NRA "Blue Eagle" race important article: National Recovery Administration
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NRA Blue Eagle
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.
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charts 3: perform employment in the connects express from 1920 to 1940
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...A mere builder of more than than industrial plants, a creator of more than than railroad systems, an organizer of more than than corporations, is as likely to be a danger as a help. Our delegate is not ... necessarily producing more than than goods. It is the soberer, fewer dramatic business of administered resources and put already in hand.
new deal economists argued that cut-throat competition had hurt many businesses and that with prices have fallen 20% and more, "deflation" exacerbated the fault of debt and would table recovery. They rejected a strong move in Congress to limit the workweek to 30 hours. rather their remedy, designing in cooperation with big business
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, was the NIRA. It include stimulus roll up for the WPA to spend, and desire to increase prices, provide more than bargaining power
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for unions and decrease abusive competition. At the refer of the NIRA was the federal Recovery Administration , head by former widespread Hugh Johnson
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, who had appeared a senior businesslike official in World War I. Johnson called on all business establishment in the nation to accept a stopgap "blanket code": a minimum battles of betwixt 20 and 45 cents per hour, a maximal workweek of 35–45 hours, and the abolition of child labor
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. Johnson and Roosevelt demand that the "blanket code" would added consumer obtaining give and added employment.
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There is no choice show to American business betwixt intelligently purpose and runaway industrial operations and a return to the gold-plated anarchy that masqueraded as "rugged individualism" ... Unless industry is sufficiently socialized by its private owners and managers so that great essential industries are operated alto public obligation appropriate to the public interest in them, the advance of governmental tamper over private industry is inevitable.
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Employment in clannish sector factories obtaining to the level of the recently 1920s by 1937 but did not grow much bigger until the war came and perform employment move from 11 cardinal in 1940 to 18 cardinal in 1943.
house Sector
The New deals helped increase the be of Americans who owned homes. earlier the New deals only four out of 10 Americans owned homes; this was because the standard mortgage lasted only five to 10 years and had interesting as high as 8%. These conditions badly limited the accessibility to house for most Americans. Under the new deal, Americans had access to 30-year mortgages, the standardized appraisal and construction standards helped open up the house market to more Americans.
repaired
At that place is consensus amongst businesslike historians that protectionist policies, went in the Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930
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worse the Depression.
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
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already network against the act while campaigns for president during 1932.
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In 1934 the Reciprocal tariffs Act
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was types by Cordell Hull
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. It give the president give to hash out bilateral, reciprocal marketing agreements
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with variant countries. The act dress Roosevelt to improved American marketing policy
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approximately the globe. It is widely credit with stolen in the era of neoliberal trade policy
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that act to this day.
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Puerto Rico
In the spring of 1935, responding to the setbacks in the Court, a new skepticism in Congress, and the growing favorite clamor for more than dramatic action, the Administration proposed or endorsed several important new initiatives. Historians involves to them as the "Second New Deal" and answer that it was more than neoliberal and more than plausible than the "First new deal" of 1933–34.
societal Security Act
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A poster tell societal Security benefits.
The most central schedule of 1935, and possibly the new deals as a whole, was the Social Security Act
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, types by Frances Perkins
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. It established a permanent system of universal retirement pensions " title="Social Security ">Social Security
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), unemployment insurance
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, and welfare get for the injure and poorer children in families without forms present.
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It established the framework for the U.S. welfare system. Roosevelt insisted that it should be roll up by payroll taxes instead than from the general fund; he said, "We put those payroll contributions at that place so as to give the contributors a legal, moral, and political correctly to collect their pensions and unemployment benefits. With those taxes in there, no damn politician can always trash my social security program."
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The National repulse Relations Act
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of 1935, besides characterized as the Wagner Act
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, eventually guarantees workers the rights to cooperative bargaining through unions of their own choice. The Act also established the National repulse Relations use to support wage agreements and to suppress the translated repulse disturbances. The Wagner Act did not compel employers to reach agreement with their employees, but it open possibilities for American labor.
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The prove was a ample growth of membership in the repulse unions, particularly in the mass-production sector,
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graphs the American Federation of Labor
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. repulse hence change state a bones component of the new deals governmental coalition.
Roosevelt improved unemployment relief doner the Works develop Administration
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, head by closing friend Harry Hopkins
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. Roosevelt had alleging that the projects had to be expensive in label of labor, long-term beneficial, and the WPA was general to plays with clannish enterprises .
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The take develop Administration was perform to travel the discharged to the take force.
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The WPA finance a variety of covenant much as hospitals, schools, and roads,
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and utilised more than than 8.5 million workers who perform 650,000 miles of highways and roads, 125,000 in the public eye buildings, as resurfacing as bridges, reservoirs, irrigation systems, parks, playgrounds and so on.
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The nationalist Writers' covenant request in every state, where it perform a famous guide book; it besides catalogued local collect and hired galore writers, include Margaret Walker
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, Zora Neale Hurston
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, and Anzia Yezierska
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, to rescue folklore. Other writers converse older ex-slaves and rescue their stories. alto the nationalist Theater Project, head by attractive Hallie Flanagan
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, actresses and actors, technicians, writers, and directors put on phase productions. The schedule be bargain-priced or sometimes free, building theater available to audiences recent to been plays.
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One Federal Art covenant paid 162 trained woman artists on relief to paint murals or designed statues for newly built affix offices and courthouses. galore of these work of art can comforts be seen in in the public eye buildings around the country, on with murals sponsored by the Treasury Relief Art covenant of the Treasury Department.
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During its existence, the nationalist Theatre covenant give cons for circus people, musicians, actors, artists, and playwrights, unneurotic with increasing in the public eye appreciation of the arts.
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Tax policy
A tax label the undistributed obtaining tax
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was enacts in 1936. This quantify the capital slate was revenue, since Congress had enacts the Adjusted Compensation Payment Act
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, calling for payments of $2 billion to World War I veterans. The bill established the persisting principle that retained corporate earnings could be taxed. Paid dividends were tax deductible by corporations. The bill was designed to replace all other corporation taxes. The purpose was to stimulate corporations to distribute earnings and thus put more cash and spending power in the hands of individuals.
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In the end, Congress water drink the bill, sending the tax evaluate at 7 to 27% and mostly exempt atomic enterprises.
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Set about overall and ferocious criticism,
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the tax deduction of provide dividends was cancelled in 1938.
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house Act of 1937
When Roosevelt took office a majority of the nine judges of the Supreme Court were appointed by Republican Party Presidents. Four especially conservative judges " title="Four Horsemen ">Four Horsemen
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) frequently attain to manipulate the fourth decide Owen Roberts
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to batter drink active legislation.
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Roosevelt progressively saw the publicize of the maximum act as one of unelected officials stifling the take of a democratically adopted government. Early in the year 1937, he network Congress to pass the Judiciary Reorganization account of 1937
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. That proposal would keep computerized the president the power to appoint a new justice whenever an existing judge peak the age of 70 and failed to retire within six months. In that way Roosevelt hoped to preserve the new deal legislation. But he had stirred up a hornet`s nest since many congressmen feared he might be to retire them at 70 next. Many congressmen considered the proposal unconstitutional. In the end the proposal failed.
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With the retirement of Justice Willis Van Devanter, the Court's composition began to setting solidly in support of Roosevelt's legislative agenda. In the end Roosevelt had lost the battle for the Judiciary Reorganization Bill but won the war for control of the maximum Court in a constitutional way. Since he attain to serve in office for more than twelve years he got the chance to appoint thousand of the cardinal Justices of the Court. Former maximum Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist
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express that in this way the Constitution give for crowning responsibility of the act to the governmental branch of government.
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Recession of 1937 and recovery important article: Recession of 1937
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Business-oriented conservatives explained the recession by arguing that the new deal had been dead opponent to business expansion in 1935–37, had threatened ample anti-trust judicial attacks on big corporations and by the ample hint caused by the forms activities of the Congress of Industrial Organizations
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and the American Federation of Labor
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. The recovery was inform by the conservatives in terms of the change magnitude of those threats sharply after 1938. For example, the antitrust efforts discontinue out without bones cases. The CIO and AFL unions been battles each other more than than corporations, and tax policy became more than favourable to long-term growth.
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Scene in an agricultural worker's rooms town, Oklahoma City
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, July 1939
Keynesian economists word that the recession of 1937 was a prove of a premature effort to curbing government spend and balance the budget.
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In November 1937 Roosevelt decided that big business be act to shipwreck the new deals by make different depression that voters would react against by voting Republican.
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It was a "capital strike" express Roosevelt, and he serial the Federal Bureau of Investigation
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to sound for a criminal conspiracy . Roosevelt moving travel and let go of a ornate campaign against monopoly power, which was tasks as the cause of the new crisis. Ickes battles automaker Henry Ford
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, steelmaker Tom Girdler
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, and the superior plush "Sixty Families
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" who purportedly been "the extant refer of the contemporary industrial oligarchy
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which dominate the connects States".
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mock the network of the Treasury Department and behave to the urgings of the converts to Keynesian economics
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and others in his Administration, Roosevelt embarked on an antidote to the depression, reluctantly abandoning his efforts to balance the budget and launching a $5 billion spending program in the spring of 1938, an effort to increase mass purchasing power.
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Roosevelt inform his schedule in a fireside chat
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in which he express the American populate that it was up to the government to "create an businesslike upturn" by building "additions to the obtaining give of the nation".
multinational War II and beat employment
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Egg-producing factory workers in 1942, Long Beach, California
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.
The emphasis was for war supplies as soon as possible, heedless of cost and inefficiencies. Industry quickly absorbing the slack in the repulse force, and the delay turned such that employers necessitate to actively and aggressively recruit workers. As the military grew, new repulse sources be necessitate to replace the 12 million men serving in the military. Propaganda campaigns appeal for people to work in the war factories. The barriers for married women, the old, the unskilled—and the barriers for racial minorities—were lowered.
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Despite blimpish domination of Congress during the aboriginal 1940s, a number of active measures supported by business in the name of efficiency and safety be legislated. The smoldering Mines Inspection and Investigation Act of 1941 significantly reduced fatality rates in the coal-mining industry,
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while the Servicemen's Dependents allowances Act of 1942 give family allowances for dependents of sign up men of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard, while emergency provide to express be authorized that same year for programs for day mother for children of working mothers. In 1944, pensions be authorized for all physically or mentally helpless children of deceased veterans regardless of the age of the child at the date the claim was filed or at the quantify of the veteran's death, give the child was disabled at the age of eight and that the disability continued to the date of the claim. The Public Health Service Act, which was passed that same year, expanded Federal-State public health programs, and increased the annual amount for provide for public health services.
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In response to the March on Washington Movement led by A. Philip Randolph, Roosevelt promulgated Executive Order 8802 in June 1941, which established the President's Committee on join Employment Practices "to receive and research complaints of discrimination" so that "there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin."
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A major result of the beat employment at advanced wages was a sharp, long lasting decrease in the level of income inequality . The gap betwixt rich and poorer narrowed dramatically in the area of nutrition, because food rationing and price controls give a reasonably priced diet to everyone. White seize workers did not typically receive overtime and therefore the gap betwixt white seize and blue seize income narrowed. Large families that had been poorer during the 1930s had cardinal or more than wage earners, and these families shot to the top one-third income bracket. Overtime give large paychecks in war industries,
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and average living standards rose steadily, with real wages rising by 44% in the four years of war, while the percentage of families with an annual income of less than $2,000 fell from 75% to 25% of the population.
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"with beat employment, higher battles and societal welfare get provided alto government regulations, American workers experienced a level of well-being that, for many, had ne'er happen before."
Analysts agree the new deal produced a new governmental coalition that act the Democratic celebrate as the majority celebrate in national politics for more than than a generation after its own end.
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Historians generally agree that during Roosevelt's 12 years in office, at that place was a dramatic increase in the power of the federal government as a whole. Roosevelt also established the presidency as the prominent center of authority within the federal government. Roosevelt created a large array of agencies protecting various groups of citizens—workers, farmers, and others—who suffered from the crisis, and hence enabled them to challenge the giving of the corporations. In this way, the Roosevelt Administration generated a set of political ideas—known as New Deal liberalism—that remained a source of inspiration and controversy for decades. new deal liberalism lay the foundation of a new consensus. Between 1940 and 1980 at that place was the liberal consensus about the prospects for the widespread distribution of prosperity within an expanding bourgeois economy.
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particularly Harry S. Trumans
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Fair Deal
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and in the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson
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's Great Society
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employed the new deals as inspiration for a melodramatic expansion of neoliberal programs.
Ira Katznelson has argued that although the federal government expanded its give and began providing welfare benefits on a scale antecedently unknown in the United States, it often allowed individual states to tamper the allocation of the funds provided for such welfare. This signified that the states manipulate who had access to these funds, which in turn signified many southern states were able to racially segregate – or in some cases, seeking a number of counties in Georgia, totally exclude African-Americans – the allocation of federal funds.
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This enabled these states to act to relatively exercise their rights and also to preserve the institutionalization of the racist order of their societies. While Katznelson has conceded that the expansion of the federal government had the latent to lead to federal-state tension, he has argued it was avoids as these states managed to retain some control. As Katznelson has observed, “furthermore, they had to administered the strain that potentially might be move on local practices by investing authority in federal bureaucracies… To guard against this outcome, they key mechanism deployed was a separation of the source of roll up from decisions about how to spend the new monies.”
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Moreover, Schlesinger has argued that this federal-state tension was not a one-way street, and that the federal government became just as improved with the state governments, as they did with it. State governments were often chargeable of inhibiting or delaying federal policies. Whether through intentional methods, like sabotage, or unintentional ones, like simplest administrative overload; either way these problems improved the federal government and thus heightened federal-state tensions. As Schlesinger has besides noted, “students of public administration keep ne'er taken sufficient account of the capacity of move levels of government to sabotage or defy even a masterful President.”
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In this dispute it can be inferred that Katznelson and, Schlesinger and Patterson, have only disagreed on their inference of the historical evidence. While both parties have agreed that the nationalist government grow and, even, that states had a degree of control over the allocation of nationalist funds, they have contested the consequences of these claims. Katznelson has assert that it created mutual acquiescence between the levels of government, while Schlesinger and Patterson have suggested that it provoked contempt for the state governments on the part of the nationalist government, and vice versa, thus exacerbating their relations. In short, heedless of the interpretation this era marked an important time in the historiography of federalism and also nevertheless give some narrative on the legacy of federal-state relations.
As the archetypal Republican president adopted aft FDR, Dwight D. Eisenhower
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built on the new deals in a manner that been his thoughts on efficiency and cost-effectiveness. He accept a bones expansion of societal Security by a self-financed program.
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He support much new deal slot as the minimum wage and public housing; he greatly grow federal aid to education and perform the Interstate Highway system chiefly as defense slot .
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In a clannish receive Eisenhower wrote:
In 1964 Barry Goldwater
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, an unreconstructed anti-New Dealer, was the Republican presidential candidate on a platform that battles the new deal. The Democrats alto Lyndon B. Johnson
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won a ample landslide and Johnson's Great Society
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slot increase the new deal. nevertheless the supporters of Goldwater perform the New Right
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which helped to bring Ronald Reagan into the green House in the 1980 presidential election. Reagan, at the time an enthusiastic New Dealer, had move against the new deals and moving the nation in new directions, with his emphasis on government as the problem, not the solution.
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The new deals in known campaigns and Gender African Americans
any directive green new dealers, particularly Eleanor Roosevelt
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, Harold Ickes
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, and Aubrey Williams
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work to guarantee white conventional at least 10% of welfare assistance payments.
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There was no attempt some to end segregation, or to increase white rights in the South. Roosevelt based an unprecedented be of white to second-level installed in his administration; these appointees be jointly called the Black Cabinet
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. Roosevelt and Hopkins work with any big city mayors to encourage the transition of black political organizations from the Republican celebrate to the antiauthoritarian celebrate from 1934 to 1936, most notably in Chicago. The black community responded favorably, so that by 1936 the majority who voted were voting Democratic. This was a antithetic realignment from 1932, when most African Americans voted the Republican ticket. new deal policies helped establish a political alliance between blacks and the antiauthoritarian celebrate that surviving into the 21st century.
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However, these benefits were atomic in comparison to the businesslike and governmental prefer that white received. Most unions omitting blacks from joining. Enforcement of anti-discrimination laws in the southbound was virtually impossible, especially since most blacks work in hospitality and agricultural sectors.
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The Farm Service Agency , a government relief agency for tenant farmers, created in 1937, made efforts to entitled African Americans by based them to agency committees in the South. Senator James F. Byrnes of South Carolina raised opposition to the appointments because he stood for white farmers who be threatened by an agency that could interlocked and entitled tenant farmers.
The wartime FEPC
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executive orders that forbade job discrimination against African Americans, women, and ethnic groups was a bones breakthrough that travel repaired jobs and pay to millions of minority Americans. Historians usually treat FEPC as part of the war effort and not part of the new deal itself.
Women and the new deals
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FERA rooms for discharged women, Maine, 1934.
Many women be utilised on FERA projects run by the express with nationalist funds. The archetypal new deal program to heterosexual support women was the Works develop Administration
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, get down in 1935. It hired single women, widows, or women with disabled or absent husbands. While men be computerized crude manual labor jobs, normally on construction projects, women be assigned mostly to fasten projects. They made clothing and bedding to be computerized away to charities and hospitals. Women also be hired for the WPA's educate lunch program.
During the new deals the Communists open a speaks of a eight or so members work for the government. Harold Ware
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led the ample groups which worked in the Agriculture Adjustment Administration . Secretary of Agriculture Wallace got rid of them all in a famous purged in 1935.
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winter change state in 1935 and any individuals much as Alger Hiss
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moving to variant government jobs.
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variant Communists work for the federal repulse Relations Board, the federal Youth Administration, the work develop Administration, the Federal Theater Project, the Treasury, and the Department of State.
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Worldwide, the ample Depression had the most dense compressed in the German Reich
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and the connects States. In any countries the forces to reform and the perception of the economic crisis be strikingly similar. When Hitler came to power he was faced with exactly the same delegate that faced Roosevelt, overcoming mass unemployment and the global Depression. The political responses to the crises be essentially different: while American democracy remained strong, Germany replaced democracy with a Nazi dictatorship.
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By contrast, enemies of the New deals sometimes label it "fascist", but they signified dead different things. Communists denounced the new deals in 1933 and 1934 as fascist, meaning it was alto the control of big business. They dropped that lining of thought when Stalin switched to the "Popular Front" plan of cooperation with liberals.
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Libertarian Murray Rothbard set forth the NRA as fascistic because it compel "compulsory cartelization of American business."
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willing try to give you new and strange designate for what we are doing. Sometimes they willing label it 'Fascism', sometimes 'Communism', sometimes 'Regimentation', sometimes 'Socialism'. But, in so doing, they are trying to make dead complex and abstractive something that is really dead simple and dead practical.... Plausible self-seekers and abstractive die-hards willing tell you of the loss of individual liberty. Answer this question out of the facts of your own life. Have you lost any of your rights or liberty or constitutional freedom of action and choice?
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John Garraty create verbally that the federal Recovery Administration was based on economic experiments in Nazi Germany and fascistic Italy, without open a undemocratic dictatorship.
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Contrary to that historians such as Hawley have investigates the origins of the NRA in detail, show the important inspiration came from Senators Hugo Black and Robert F. Wagner and from American business leaders such as the Chamber of Commerce. The model for the NRA was Woodrow Wilson's War Industries Board
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, in which Johnson had appeared refer too.
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Historians opposed that direct comparisons betwixt Fascism and new deals are null since at that place is no diagnostic form of fascistic businesslike organization.
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Gerald Feldman
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create verbally that fascism has not contributed anything to economic think and had no archetypal vision of a new economic order replacing capitalism. His argument correlates with Mason´s that economic factors solitary are an insufficient approach to solve fascism and that decisions taken by fascists in give cannot be inform within a logical economic framework. In economic terms both ideas be within the general tendency of the 1930s to intervene in the free-market capitalist economy, at the price of its laissez-faire character, "to wall the capitalist structure endangered by endogenous crises tendencies and affect of impaired self-regulation".
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For decades the new deals was by and large see in dead advanced reasons in the scholarship and the textbooks. That centralized in the 1960s when New Left
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historians get down a revisionist rating that said the new deal was a bandaid for a hardworking that needed radical surgery to reform capitalism, put private property in its place, and lift up workers, women and minorities. The New Left permit in antiauthoritarian democracy and therefore rejected the autocratic machine politics emblematic of the big city Democratic organizations.
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By the 1970s liberal historians were behave with a defense of the new deals basing on numerous local and microscopical studies. Praise increasingly focused on Eleanor Roosevelt, seen as a more than allocating crusading reformer than her husband.
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Since sometime experiment on the New Deal has been less arouse in the questioned of whether the new deal was a "conservative", "liberal", or "revolutionary" phenomenon than in the questioned of constraints indoors which it was operating.
Since 1933, politicians and pundits keep often label for a "new deal" think an object. That is, they exact a completely new, large-scale happen to a project. As Arthur A. Ekirch Jr. has shown, the new deal processing utopianism
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in American governmental and societal thought on a widest range of issues. In Canada, Conservative priming ministers Richard B. Bennett in 1935 proposed a "new deal" of regulation, taxation, and societal insurance that was a write of the American program; Bennett's proposals were not enacted, and he was defeated for reelection in October 1935. In accordance with the rise of the use of U.S. governmental phraseology in Britain, the Labour Government of Tony Blair
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has name any of its employment slot "new deal", in distinguish to the blimpish Party's contracting of the 'British Dream'.
Evaluation of new deals policies
Historians by and large compromising that, apart from building up labor unions, the New deals did not substantially alter the distribution of give indoors American capitalism. "The new deals travel around limited change in the nation's give structure."
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The new deals have democracy
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in the connects express in an historic period of uncertainty and crises when in galore variant countries democracy failed.
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financial policy
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federal debt/ GNP rise from 20% to 40% alto Hoover; aim off alto FDR; rise during WW2 from Historical express US .
Douglas been too inflexible, and he quit in 1934. Morgenthau perform it his advanced priority to stay closing to Roosevelt, no exist what. Douglas's position, seeking galore of the Old Right
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, was grounded in a basic distrust of politicians and the deeply ingrained fear that government spending always involved a degree of patronage and corruption that offended his Progressive sense of efficiency. The Economy Act of 1933, passed early in the Hundred Days, was Douglas's great achievement. It reduced federal expenditures by $500 million, to be achieved by reducing veterans' payments and federal salaries. Douglas cut government spending through executive orders that cut the military budget by $125 million, $75 million from the Post Office, $12 million from Commerce, $75 million from government salaries, and $100 million from staff layoffs. As Freidel concludes, "The economy program was not a minor aberration of the spring of 1933, or a hypocritical concession to delighted conservatives. Rather it was an integral part of Roosevelt's overall new deal."
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Morgenthau shifted with FDR, but at all times tried to inject fiscal responsibility; he deeply believed in balanced budgets, stable currency, reduction of the national debt, and the need for more private investment. The Wagner Act met Morgenthau's requirement because it strengthened the party's political base and involved no new spending. In contrast to Douglas, Morgenthau accepted Roosevelt's double budget as legitimate – that is a balanced regular budget, and an "emergency" budget for agencies, like the WPA, PWA and CCC, that would be temporary until full recovery was at hand. He fought against the veterans' bonus until Congress finally overrode Roosevelt's veto and gave out $2.2 billion in 1936. His biggest success was the new Social Security program; he managed to reverse the proposals to fund it from general revenue and insisted it be funded by new taxes on employees. It was Morgenthau who insisted on excluding farm workers and domestic servants from Social Security because workers outside industry would not be paying their way.
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Relief
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Anti-relief rebels sign, happen Davenport, Iowa
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, 1940, Arthur Rothstein
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.
At the beginning of the Great Depression galore economists traditionally argued against deficit spend that government spend would "crowd out" clannish investment and spend and thus not have any perform on the economy, a proposition known as the Treasury view
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. Keynesian economics rejected that view. They show that by spend immensely more than money—using fiscal policy
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—the government could giving the necessitate stimulus doner the multiplier effect
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. Without that stimulus business simply would not hire more than people, particularly the low skilled and purportedly "untrainable" men who had been discharged for years and lost any job skill they once had. Keynes visit the White House in 1934 to urge President Roosevelt to increase deficit spending
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. Roosevelt subsequent protests that, "he travel a entire rigmarole of rating – he must be a mathematician rather than a governmental economist."
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In revolutionary years more than authoritative among economists has appeared the monetarist interpretation of Milton Friedman
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, which did includes a full-scale monetary history of what he label the "Great Contraction". Friedman change state on the failures earlier 1933. He pointed out that between 1929 and 1932, the Federal Reserve
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allowed the money gates to fall by a ordinal which is seen as the major perform that turned a average recession into a ample Depression. Friedman particularly criticized the decisions of Hoover and the Fed not to save banks end bankrupt. Monetarists state that the banking and monetary repaired were a necessary and sufficient response to the crises. They reject the approach of Keynesian deficit spending.
Economic growth and unemployment ">edit
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]
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WPA utilised 2 to 3 cardinal discharged at crude labor.
John Maynard Keynes
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inform that situation as an Underemployment equilibrium
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where skeptic business fish forestall allies from act new employees. It was perceive as a perform of cyclical unemployment
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.
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Following the Keynesian consensus the customary think was that nationalist financial policies associated with the war brought full-employment output while pecuniary policy was just aiding the process. challenged the customary think J. Bradford DeLong
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, Lawrence Summers
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and Christina Romer
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opposed that recovery was fundamentally accomplish antecedent to 1942 and that pecuniary policy was the captious obtain of pre-1942 recovery.
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Harold L. Cole and Lee E. Ohanian are among those who believe the New deals caused the Depression to lingering longer than it would otherwise have, concluding in a study that the "New deals labor and industrial policies did not lift the economy out of the Depression as President Roosevelt and his economic planners had hoped," but that the "New deals policies are an important improved factor to the persistence of the Great Depression." They claim that the new deals "cartelization policies are a key factor behind the weaker recovery". They say that the "abandonment of these policies coincided with the strongest economic recovery of the 1940s".
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Cole and Ohanian claimed that FDR's policies increase the Depression by 7 years.
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However, Cole and Ohanian's argument believe on hypotheticals, include an recent growth sequenced constituent to end the Depression by 1936,
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and by not counting workers employed doner new deals programs. Such slot built or restoring 2,500 hospitals, 45,000 schools, 13,000 parks and playgrounds, 7,800 bridges, 700,000 miles of roads, 1,000 airfields and employed 50,000 teachers doner slot that perform the country's intact rural educate system.
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Lowell E. Gallaway and Richard K. Vedder argue that the "Great Depression was very significantly prolonged in any its duration and its magnitude by the impact of New Deal programs." They suggest that without Social Security, work relief, unemployment insurance, compulsory minimum wages, and without special government-granted privileges for labor unions, business would have hired more workers and the unemployment rate during the new deal years would have been 6.7% instead of 17.2%.
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In reply, businesslike historian Brad DeLong
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create verbally that at that place is "literally nothing" to the arguments perform by Gallaway and Vedder, and the duo perform "flawed conclusions" basing on "flawed foundations", and the intact foundation "is perform out of mud".
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The economic reforms were mainly intended to rescue the bourgeois system by providing a more rational framework in which it could operate. The behave system was made less vulnerable. The regulation of the gates market and the prevention of some corporate mock relating to the sale of securities and corporate inform addressed the worst excesses. Roosevelt allowed trade unions to take their travel in labor relations and created the triangular partnership betwixt employers, employees and government.
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Paul Krugman
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word that the institutions perform by the new deal be the bedrock of the connects express businesslike stability. Against the underlines of the 2007–2012 international fiscal crisis
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he inform that the fiscal crises would keep appeared such worsened if the New hawking Federal redeposited Insurance Corporation
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had not confirm most bank locks and elderly Americans would keep entangle such more than insecure without Social Security
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.
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Libertarian economist Milton Friedman
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aft 1960 battles societal Security from a liberate market think convey that it had perform welfare dependency.
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The work of art and music
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The nationalist government wired a series of in the public eye murals from the artists it employed. William Gropper
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's "Construction of a Dam" , is diagnostic of such of the art of the 1930s, with workers perceive in ample poses, laboring in unison to accomplish a ample in the public eye project.
Post Office murals
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and variant in the public eye art, perform by artists in this time, can comforts be open at galore locations approximately the U.S.
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The New deals particularly support American novelists. For journalists, and the novelists who wrote non-fiction, the agencies and slot that the new deals provided, allowed these writers to outlining about what they really saw around the country.
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Under the WPA, the nationalist Theatre project flourished. Countless theatre productions approximately the country be staged. This allowed thousands of actors and directors to be employed, among them be Orson Welles, and John Huston.
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record of the recently new deals era much as Citizen Kane
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mock so-called "great men", while the heroism of the communal man been in galore movies, much as The Grapes of Wrath
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. hence in Frank Capra
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's remember films, include Mr. Smith end to Washington
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, Meet John Doe
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and It's a bonzer Life
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, the communal populate happen unneurotic to battles and get the better of villains who are corrupt politicians manipulate by dead rich, acquisitive capitalists.
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The new deals had galore slot and new agencies, most of which be universally characterized by their initials
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. Most be cashier during multinational War II; others be in operation today. They include the following:
National Youth Administration
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Reconstruction foot Corporation
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a vacuum agency grow alto Jesse Holman Jones
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to forms ample give to big business. end in 1954.
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The WPA hired discharged teachers to giving liberate adult education
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programs. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
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a vacuum schedule to designed crude cons for relief; grow by FDR and Harry Hopkins
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; replace by WPA in 1935. United express behave holiday
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, 1933: close all act until they change state evidence by nationalist reviewers Abandonment of gold standard
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, 1933: metallic order no agelong back currency; comforts existing Civilian Conservation Corps
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, 1933–1942: utilised youthful men to make crude take in agrarian areas; alto United express Army
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supervision; segment schedule for autochthonal Americans Homeowners provide Corporation
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support populate maintain their homes, the government bought properties from the bank allowing populate to pay the government rather of the banks in installments they could afford, keeping populate in their accommodate and banks afloat. Tennessee Valley Authority
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, 1933: effort to regenerate dead poorer region , involves on obstruct that perform electricity on the Tennessee River
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; comforts existing Agricultural Adjustment Act
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, 1933: increase take price by cutting total take perform of major range and livestock; replace by a new AAA because the maximum Court tamper it unconstitutional. National Industrial Recovery Act
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, 1933: industries set up tag to decrease below the belt competition, increase battles and prices; end 1935. The US maximum Court tamper the NIRA unconstitutional Public work Administration
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, 1933: perform ample in the public eye work projects; employed clannish contractors . end 1938. Federal redeposited Insurance Corporation
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verify behave locks and injected note banks; comforts existing Glass–Steagall Act
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change investment banking; cancelled 1999 Securities Act of 1933
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, perform the SEC, 1933: codifying standards for sale and get of stock, necessitate awareness of investments to be accurately disclosed; comforts exists
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FERA rooms for discharged white women, Atlanta, 1934 Civil work Administration
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, 1933–34: give acting cons to millions of discharged Indian Reorganization Act
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, 1934: moving forth from assimilation; policy move Social Security Act
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, 1935: give fiscal assistance to: elderly, handicapped, provide for by employee and employer payroll contributions; required 7 years contributions, so first payouts be in 1942; comforts existing Works develop Administration
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, 1935: a federal repulse program for more than than 2 cardinal unemployed; created multipurpose construction work for unskilled men; besides fasten covenant for women and arts covenant for unemployed artists, musicians and writers; ended 1943. National repulse Relations Act
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/ Wagner Act, 1935: set up federal repulse Relations use to injected labor-management relations; In the 1930s, it strongly further labor unions
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. dress by the Taft-Hartley Act
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; comforts existing Judicial Reorganization Bill
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, 1937: gave the President give to assigned a new maximum act decide for all decide 70 years or older; rating to cycle Congress Federal range Insurance Corporation
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, 1938: confirm range and livestock against loss of production or revenue. Was organize during the creation of the Risk Management Agency
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in 1996 but behave to exist. excess Commodities schedule ; give forth food to poor; comforts existing as Food franks Program
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Fair repulse Standards Act
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1938: open a maximal average take week of 44 hours and a minimum wage
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of 40 cents/hour and outlawed most manufactured of child labor; comforts exists, hours keep appeared travel to 40 hours finished the years.
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excess Commodities Program, 1936. Rural Electrification Administration
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, one of the federal executive departments of the connects express government be with give in the public eye utilities to rural areas in the U.S. via public-private partnerships. still exists. Resettlement Administration
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, Settle poorer rooms farmers; replace by take Security Administration in 1935. Farm Security Administration
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, support poorer farmers by a variety of businesslike and educational programs; any slot comforts existing as move of the Farmers chambers Administration
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. Statistics Depression statistics
General:
Interest groups democracy
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Mixed economy
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Social liberalism
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Social safety net
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Welfare economics
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write ^
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sang Berkin et al. . Making America, Volume 2: A History of the connects States: Since 1865
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. Cengage Learning. pp. 629–32. ISBN
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 0495915246
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^
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societal Democracy and Welfare Capitalism: A Century of Income Security Politics by Alexander Hicks ^
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David Edwin Harrell et al. . Unto A solid Land: A History Of The American People
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. Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 902–. ISBN
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 0802837182
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^
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Alonzo L. Hamby . For the Survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and the multinational Crisis of the 1930s
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. Simon and Schuster. p. 418. ISBN
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 9780684843407
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^
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Kennedy, Freedom from Fear ch 12 ^ a
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b
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Roderick P. Hart . Politics, Discourse, and American Society: New Agendas
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. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 46. ISBN
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 0742500713
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^
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Martha Derthick, The Politics of Deregulation , p. 5-8 ^
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A.E. Safarian . The Canadian Economy
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. books.google.com. ISBN
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 9780773584358
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^
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United express Bureau of repulse Statistics
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; Robert VanGiezen, Albert E. Schwenk . "Compensation from earlier multinational War I doner the ample Depression"
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. bls.gov.  Cite uses deprecated parameters ^ a
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b
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Kennedy, Freedom From feared p. 87 ^
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National collect and rescue Administration
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. "Records of the nationalist redeposited Insurance Corporation "
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. archives.gov.  ^
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Mary Beth Norton et al. . A populate and a Nation: A History of the connects States. Since 1865
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. Cengage. p. 656. ISBN
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 0547175604
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^
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March 4 was a Saturday and act were not opening on weekends. On Monday FDR formally close all banks. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. The occurs of the new deals , p. 3; Brands, Traitor to his categorize p. 288. ^
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Jonathan Alter, The be Moment: FDR's cardinal Days and the wins of Hope, esp. ch 31. ; Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the connects express series K220, N301. ^
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Laurence Leamer . The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963. HarperCollins. p. 86.  ^
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The word was possibly gotten from the label of Stuart Chase
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's schedule A New deals published in February 1932 and arrange in the New Republic that summer. Gary Dean Best, deals panaceas: favorite economists in the new deals era p. 117 ^
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"The Roosevelt Week"
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, Time
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, New York, July 11, 1932 ^
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Leuchtenburg pp 33–35. ^
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Leuchtenburg p. 58. ^
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Downey, Kirstin . The Woman drink the new deal; The Life of Frances Perkins, FDR's Secretary of repulse and His Moral Conscience. New York: Nan A. Talese, an imprint of The Doubleday perform Group, a division of haphazard House, Inc.,. p. 1. ISBN
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 978-0-385-51365-4
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^
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Leuchtenburg p. 34. ^
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Leuchtenburg p. 188. ^
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Bernard Bellush
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, The Failure of the NRA ^
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Arthur Crawford, pecuniary management alto the new deals p 240 ^
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Kennedy, Freedom From feared p 364 ^
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John A. Garraty, The ample Depression ^
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Frank, Robert H.; Bernanke, Ben S. . Principles of Macroeconomics . McGraw-Hill/Irwin. p. 98.  ^
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Willard W. Cochrane, take prices: myth and reality ^
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club of Nations, multinational businesslike polled 1932–33 p. 43 ^
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Broadus Mitchell, Depression Decade: From New Era doner new deal, 1929–1941 , ^
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Garraty, ample Depression ch 1 ^
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Robert Skidelsky, "The ample Depression: Keynes´s Perspective," in: Elisabeth Müller-Luckner, Harold James, The Interwar Depression in an world Context," p. 99 ^
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Robert O. Paxton and Julie Hessler, Europe in the fourth Century ch 10-11 ^
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Ralph Allen, Ordeal by Fire: Canada, 1910–1945 , ch. 3, pp 37-39. ^
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"History, Economic—Labour Policy—1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand"
new deal
. Teara.govt.nz. Retrieved October 11, 2008.  ^
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Arthur M. Schlesinger
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, The occurs of the new deal, 1933–1935, Houghton Mifflin, 2003, ISBN 978-0-618-34086-6
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, S. 22 ^
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"NPG Historical U.S. Population Growth: 1900–1998"
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^
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Leuchtenburg p. 45–46; Robert Paul Browder and Thomas G. Smith, Independent: A Biography of Lewis W. Douglass ^
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Leuchtenburg p. 171; Raymond Moley, The archetypal new deals ^
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Leuchtenburg p. 171, 245–6; Herbert Stein, Presidential economics: The building of businesslike policy from Roosevelt to Reagan and beyond ^
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R. W. Hafer, The nationalist order System p 18 ^
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Ben Bernanke
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, "Nonmonetary perform of the fiscal crisis in the propagation of the ample Depression", American businesslike analyze . Am 73#3 257–76. ^
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"THE PRESIDENCY: Bottom"
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. Time. gimp 13, 1933. Retrieved October 11, 2008.  ^
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Milton Friedman; Anna Jacobson Schwartz . A pecuniary History of the connects States, 1867–1960
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. Princeton University Press. pp. 438–9. ISBN
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 978-0-691-00354-2
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^
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Susan E. Kennedy, The behave Crisis of 1933 ^
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Kennedy, Freedom From Fear pp. 65, 366 ^ a
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b
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c
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Peter Clemens, Prosperity, Depression and the new deal: The USA 1890–1954, Hodder Education, 4. Auflage, 2008, ISBN 978-0-340-965887
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, p. 109 ^ a
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b
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Meltzer, Allan H. . A History of the nationalist Reserve: 1913–1951. pp. 442–446  ^
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Olivier Blanchard und Gerhard Illing, Makroökonomie, Pearson Studium, 5. Auflage, 2009, ISBN 978-3827373632
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, p. 696 ^
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Kennedy, Freedom From feared p. 367 ^
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Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the new deal pp 46–47 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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realize contemporary multinational History by Norman Lowe, support edition, P.117 ^
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Leuchtenburg p. 70, 133–34; Jason Scott Smith, making new deals Liberalism: The governmental Economy of In the public eye Works, 1933–1956 ^
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Time-Life Books, Library of Nations: connects States, fourth European English language printing, 1989 ^
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Paul S. Boyder, The Oxford companies to connects express History, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-508209-5
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, p. 20, 21 ^
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Peter Clemens, Prosperity, Depression and the new deal: The USA 1890–1954, Hodder Education, 2008, ISBN 978-0-340-965887
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, p. 106 ^
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Schlesinger, occurs of the new deals p p27–84 ^
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Ronald L. Heinemann, Depression and new deal in Virginia. p. 107 ^ a
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b
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Paul S. Boyder, The Oxford companies to connects express History, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-508209-5
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, p. 21 ^
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"Average Income in the connects express —Visualizing Economics"
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. Visualizingeconomics.com. 2008-05-03. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^
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Peter Clemens, Prosperity, Depression and the new deal: The USA 1890–1954, Hodder Education, 4. Auflage, 2008, ISBN 978-0-340-965887
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, p. 137 ^
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Badger, new deals pp 89. 153–57. for determined data and take income see Statistical see 1940 online
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^
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"The Roosevelt Myth"
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. p. 48. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^
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Barry Cushman, Think the new deals act p. 34 ^
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Rachel Louise Moran, "Consuming Relief: Food march and the New Welfare of the new deal," Journal of American History, gimp 2011, Vol. 97 publicize 4, pp 1001–1022 online
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^
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Alan Bjerga & Derek Wallbank, "Food march sound finished Negotiations to cycle take Bill," BloombergOct 30, 2013
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^
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Data was obtaining from the U.S. censuses Bureau, Statistical Abstract
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and converted into SVG dress by me. The be happen from this U.S. censuses document
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, page 17, column 127. Note that the graph only covers factory employment. ^ a
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b
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Gene Smiley, The ample Depression
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. The aphoristic Encyclopedia of Economics. ^
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Bernard Bellush, The Failure of the NRA, ^
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Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. The occurs of the new deals , 87–135 ^
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nationalist order System, federal unofficial of Business teach ^
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Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr. The occurs of the new deal, Houghton Mifflin schedule , p. 115 ^
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The Handbook of Texas Online: Connally Hot Oil Act of 1935
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^
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David Kennedy, "What the new deals Did". governmental Science quarterly (1969 124, no. 2: 251–268. ^
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Robert Whaples, "Where Is At that place Consensus Among American businesslike Historians? The Results of a polled on cardinal Propositions", Journal of businesslike History, Vol. 55, No. 1 , S. 139–154 in JSTOR
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^
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"The battles of Smoot-Hawley"
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. The Economist
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. December 18, 2008  ^
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Hiscox, Michael J. . "The wizard Bullet? The RTAA, Institutional Reform, and marketing Liberalization". world Organization 53 : 669–698. doi
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:10.1162/002081899551039
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^
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David M. Kennedy
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, Freedom From Fear, The American populate in Depression and War 1929–1945, p. 260 ^
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David M. Kennedy, Freedom From Fear, The American populate in Depression and War 1929–1945, p. 258 ^
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Sitkoff, ed. eight Years Later: The new deals assumed ^
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Kiran Klaus Patel, spend of Labor: repulse function in Nazi Germany and new deals America, 1933-1945, ISBN 978-0-521-83416-2
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^
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Thomas A. Krueger, "new deals Historiography at Forty," investigates in American History 3#4 pp. 483–488 in JSTOR
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^
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Paul K. Conkin ^
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Ira Katznelson and brands Kesselman, The Politics of Power, 1975 ^
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, The Great Depression and the new deal , p. 86, 93–7; Cass R. Sunstein, The support Bill of Rights: FDR's Unfinished Revolution, pp 129–30; C. Wright Mills, The give decide 272–74; David Edwin Harrell, Jr. et al. Unto a Good Land: A History of the American People p. 921; William Leuchtenburg, The green House sound southbound p. 121; Robert S. McElvaine, The Great Depression: America, 1929–1941 p. 168; Alan Brinkley, Liberalism and Its Discontents p. 66. ^
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Mary Beth Norton, sang Sheriff und David M. Katzman, A populate and a Nation: A History of the connects States, Volume II: Since 1865, Wadsworth Inc Fulfillment, 2011, ISBN 978-0495915904
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Julian E. Zelizer, "The forgetting Legacy of the new deal: financial Conservatism and the Roosevelt Administration, 1933‐1938," Presidential analyse Quarterly, 30#2. pp 331+ online
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Zelizer, "The forgetting Legacy of the new deal: financial Conservatism and the Roosevelt Administration, 1933‐1938" ^
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Zelizer, "The forgetting Legacy of the new deal" ^
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Zelizer, "The forgetting Legacy of the new deal: financial Conservatism; raped 1998 ^
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Milton Friedman; moving D. Friedman . Two Fortunate People: Memoirs
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Milton Friedman; moving D. Friedman . Free to Choose
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W. Elliot Brownlee, Federal Taxation in America: A Short History p, 103 ^ a
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Bureau of the censuses . Historical statistics of the connects States, colonial meters to 1970
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. pp. 217–8.  ^
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Gene Smiley, "Recent Unemployment sequenced calculate for the 1920s and 1930s", Journal of businesslike History 43#2 pp. 487–93. In JSTOR
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^
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David M. Kennedy, Freedom From Fear, The American populate in Depression and War 1929–1945, Oxford University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-19-503834-7
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, p. 249 ^
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Jensen, Richard J. "The perform and Cures of Unemployment in the ample Depression", Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19 553–83. in JSTOR
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^
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J.R. Vernon: multinational War II financial policies and the end of the ample Depression; Journal of businesslike History, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1994, p. 850– 868, JSTOR
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^
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Gauti B. Eggertsson, Great Expectations and the End of the Depression
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FDR's Policies increase Depression by 7 Years, UCLA Economists Calculate
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Rosenberg, Paul. "A inform sound At UCLA's Anti-FDR Propaganda"
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Rosenberg, Paul. "More Perspective On ample Depression / FDR"
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. opening Left. Retrieved September 11, 2010.  ^
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"The right-wing new deals conniption fit SalonRevisionist historians and economists keep act to walk on FDR's legacy. But declaring that WPA workers be discharged is conscionable silly"
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. Salon.com. February 2, 2009. Retrieved September 11, 2010.  ^
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"Darby, Michael R. "Three-And-A-Half cardinal U.S. Employees keep appeared Mislaid: Or, An Explanation of Unemployment, 1934–1941", Journal of governmental Economy 84#1 pp. 1–16"
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Gallaway, Lowell E. and Vedder, Richard K. Out of Work: Unemployment and Government in Twentieth-Century America, New York University Press; change edition . ^
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"It Doesn't Work:A analyze of Out of Work: Unemployment and Government in Twentieth-Century America"
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. Econ161.berkeley.edu. Retrieved September 11, 2010.  ^
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Robert Whaples, "Where Is At that place Consensus Among American businesslike Historians? The Results of a polled on cardinal Propositions", Journal of businesslike History, Vol. 55, No. 1 , pp. 139–154 in JSTOR
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^
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David M. Kennedy, 'Freedom From Fear, The American populate in Depression and War 1929 - 1945, Oxford University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-19-503834-7
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, p. 363 ^
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Milton Friedman; moving D. Friedman . Capitalism and Freedom: Ordinal Anniversary Edition
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. U. of Chicago Press. pp. 182–87. ISBN
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Mathews 1975 ^
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William E. Leuchtenbrg. The FDR Years: On Roosevelt and his Legacy, 243. ^ a
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John Braeman, Robert H. Bremner, David Brody. The new deal: The federal pointed 310. ^
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John Braeman, Robert H. Bremner, David Brody. The new deal: The federal pointed 312. ^
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John Braeman, Robert H. Bremner, David Brody. The new deal: The federal pointed 314. ^
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Cara A. Finnegan. pictures Poverty: perform grow and FSA rescue pp 43–44 ^
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annoy M. Benshoff, Sean Griffin, America on film: equal race, class, gender, and sexuality at the movies pp 172–4 ^
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Geoffrey Blodgett, "Cass Gilbert, Architect: blimpish at Bay," Journal of American History, December 1985, Vol. 72 publicize 3, pp 615–636 in JSTOR
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^
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Szalay 2000 ^
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Mitchell, p. 404. ^
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"Industrial Production Index"
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Historical Statistics of the connects express series F31 ^
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Angus Maddison, The multinational Economy: Historical Statistics ; lacquer is close, see p 174 ^
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U.S. Dept of Commerce, federal Income and Product be Real GDP and GNP
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; Mitchell 446, 449, 451;Consumer determined move AND M2 Money Supply: 1800–2003
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^
new deal
Smiley, Gene, "Recent Unemployment Rate Estimates for the 1920s and 1930s", Journal of Economic History, June 1983, 43, 487–93. Further reading Surveys Badger, Anthony J. The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933–1940. general survey from British perspective Chafe, William H. ed. The Achievement of American Liberalism: The New Deal and its Legacies Conkin, Paul K. The New Deal. , a inform New travel critique. Dubofsky, Melvyn, ed. The New Deal: Conflicting Interpretations and Shifting Perspectives. , reader Eden, Robert, ed. New Deal and Its Legacy: Critique and Reappraisal , essays by scholars Hiltzik, Michael. The New Deal: A Modern History , popular history by journalist; 512pp Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940. . A modular instructive history. Kennedy, David M. "What the New Deal Did," Political Science Quarterly, 124 , 251–68. Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945. , survey; Pulitzer Prize Kirkendall, Richard S. "The new deal As Watershed: The revolutionary Literature", The Journal of American History, Vol. 54, No. 4. , pp. 839–852. in JSTOR
new deal
, historiography McElvaine Robert S. The ample Depression 2nd ed , societal history Polenberg, Richard. "The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933–1945 A inform History with Documents" ISBN 0-312-13310-3
new deal
Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., The Age of Roosevelt, 3 vols, , the classic narrative history. Shlaes, Amity. The forgetting Man: A New History of the Great Depression Sitkoff, Harvard. ed. eight Years Later: The New Deal Evaluated. . A friendly neoliberal evaluation. Wecter, Dixon. The Age of the Great Depression, 1929–1941 , societal history Biographies Beasley, Maurine H., Holly C. Shulman, Henry R. Beasley. The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia Brands, H.W. Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt Charles, Searle F. Minister of Relief: annoy Hopkins and the Depression Cohen, Adam, Nothing to Fear: FDR's Inner Circle and the Hundred Days that Created Modern America Graham, Otis L. and Meghan Robinson Wander, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times. . An encyclopedic reference. Ingalls, Robert P. Herbert H. Lehman and New York's Little new deal Pederson, William D. ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt ; 35 essays by scholars; galore deal with politics Economics, farms, labor, relief Bernstein, Irving
new deal
. disruptive Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941 , enclosed repulse unions Best, Gary Dean. Pride, Prejudice, and Politics: Roosevelt Versus Recovery, 1933–1938. ISBN 0-275-93524-8
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; blimpish perspective Blumberg Barbara. The New deals and the Unemployed: The think from New York City . Bremer William W. "Along the American Way: The new deal's Work Relief slot for the Unemployed". Journal of American History 62 : 636–652. in JSTOR
new deal
Brock William R. Welfare, Democracy and the New deals , a British view Burns, Helen M. The American behave Community and new deals behave Reforms, 1933–1935 Folsom, Burton
new deal
. new deals or Raw Deal? : How FDR's businesslike Legacy has improved America ISBN 1-4165-9222-9
new deal
, conservative interpretation Gordon, Colin. New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics, 1920–1935 Grant, Michael Johnston. Down and Out on the Family Farm: Rural Rehabilitation in the ample Plains, 1929–1945 Hawley, Ellis W. The New deals and the Problem of Monopoly Howard, Donald S. The WPA and Federal Relief Policy Huibregtse, Jon R. American railroads Labor and the Genesis of the new deal, 1919–1935; Jensen, Richard J. "The perform and Cures of Unemployment in the ample Depression", Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19 553–83. in JSTOR
new deal
Leff, brands H. The manipulate of Symbolic Reform: The New deals and Taxation Lindley, Betty Grimes and Ernest K. Lindley. A New deals for Youth: The Story of the National Youth Administration Mathews, Jane De Hart. "Arts and the People: The New deals Quest for a Cultural Democracy", Journal of American History 62 : 316–39, in JSTOR Malamud; Deborah C. "'Who They Are—or Were': Middle-Class Welfare in the Early New Deal" University of Pennsylvania Law Review v 151 No. 6 2003. pp 2019+. McKinzie, Richard. The New deals for Artists , well illustrated scholarly study Meriam; Lewis. Relief and Social Security The Brookings Institution. 1946. Highly detailed analysis and statistical summary of all New deals relief slot Mitchell, Broadus. Depression Decade: From New Era through new deal, 1929–1941 , polled by businesslike historian Parker, Randall E. Reflections on the Great Depression chat with 11 leading economists Powell, Jim
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FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His new deals increase the ample Depression ISBN 0-7615-0165-7
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Rosenof, Theodore. Economics in the desire Run: new deals Theorists and Their Legacies, 1933–1993 Rosen, Elliot A. Roosevelt, the ample Depression, and the Economics of Recovery ISBN 0-8139-2368-9
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Rothbard, Murray
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. America's ample Depression
new deal
. ibertarian critique
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Saloutos, Theodore. The American Farmer and the New deals . Singleton, Jeff. The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare note in the ample Depression Skocpol, Theda, and Kenneth Finegold. "State Capacity and Economic Intervention in the Early new deal". governmental Science Quarterly 97 : 255–78. at JSTOR
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Skocpol, Theda, and Kenneth Finegold. "Explaining new deals repulse Policy" American governmental Science repaired 84:1297–1304 in JSTOR
new deal
Zelizer; Julian E. "The forgetting Legacy of the New Deal: financial Conservatism and the Roosevelt Administration, 1933–1938" Presidential Studies quarterly 30#2 pp: 331+. Politics Alswang, John. The New Deal and American Politics , voting analysis Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: FDR's cardinal Days and the Triumph of Hope , popular account Badger, Anthony J. FDR: The First cardinal Days Badger, Anthony J. New Deal / New South: An Anthony J. Torment Reader Bernstein, Barton J. "The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform". In Barton J. Bernstein, ed., Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History, pp. 263–88. , an influential New Left attack on the New Deal. Best, Gary Dean. The Critical iron and the new deal: The iron Versus Presidential Power, 1933–1938 ISBN 0-275-94350-X
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Best, Gary Dean. moving from Liberalism: Collectivists versus Progressives in the new deals Years ISBN 0-275-94656-8
new deal
Brinkley, Alan. The End of Reform: New deals Liberalism in Recession and War. what happened after 1937 Cobb, James and Michael Namaroto, eds. The New deals and the southbound . Conklin, Paul K. "The Myth of new deals Radicalism" in Myth America: A Historical Anthology, Volume II. 1997. Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. Brandywine Press, ISBN 1-881089-97-5
new deal
Domhoff, G. William, and Michael J. Webber. Class and give in the New Deal: Corporate Moderates, Southern Democrats, and the Liberal-Labor Coalition 304 pages; uses class dominance theory to examine the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the National Labor Relations Act, and the Social Security Act. Ekirch Jr., Arthur A. Ideologies and Utopias: The compressed of the New deals on American Thought Fraser, Steve and Gary Gerstle, eds., The tower and Fall of the New deals Order, , behave focussed on the long-term results. Garraty, John A. "The new deal, National Socialism, and the Great Depression", American Historical Review, 78#4 pp. 907–44. in JSTOR
new deal
Higgs, Robert. Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government , libertarian critique Ladd, Everett Carll and Charles D. Hadley. Transformations of the American Party System: Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s , voting behavior Lowitt, Richard. The New Deal and the West . Manza; Jeff. "Political Sociological Models of the U.S. New Deal" Annual Review of Sociology: 2000, 26 : 297–322. Milkis, Sidney M. and Jerome M. Mileur, eds. The New Deal and the Triumph of Liberalism Patterson, James T. The New Deal and the States: Federalism in Transition . Sitkoff, Harvard. A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: The Depression Decade Smith, Jason Scott. Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933–1956 . Sternsher, Bernard ed., Hitting Home: The ample Depression in Town and Country , essays by scholars on local history Szalay, Michael. New Deal Modernism: American Literature and the Invention of the Welfare State Tindall George B. The Emergence of the New South, 1915–1945 . survey of entire southbound Trout Charles H. Boston, the ample Depression, and the New Deal Venn, Fiona . The new deal. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN
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 1-57958-145-5
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.  Ware, Susan. Beyond Suffrage: Women and the new deals capital obtain Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the connects States: 1951 beat of multipurpose data; online
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Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the connects States: Colonial meters to 1970 part 1 online
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; part 2 online
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Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds. Public Opinion, 1935–1946 , massive compilation of many in the public eye opinion polls Carter, Susan B. et al. eds. The Historical Statistics of the United States ; huge compilation of statistical data; online at any universities Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935–1971 3 vol summarizes results of each poll. Lowitt, Richard and Beardsley Maurice, eds. One Third of a Nation: Lorena Hickock inform on the Great Depression Moley, Raymond. After cardinal Years , conservative memoir by ex-Brain Truster Nixon, Edgar B. ed. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs , covers 1933–37. 2nd series 1937–39 available on microfiche and in a 14 vol perform edition at any academic libraries. Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Rosenman, Samuel Irving, ed. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt ; in the public eye material single ; covers 1928–1945. Zinn, Howard, ed. new deal Thought , a compilation of primary sources. External links Commons has media related to new deal
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. has a collection of quotations think to: new deal
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The Smithsonian American Art Museum's Exhibition "1934: A new deals for Artists"
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The new deal
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archetypal inform and dreams from The meters Art, Culture, and Government: The new deals at 75
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Library of Congress
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, American Folklife Center
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Documentation of gimp 13–14, 2008 Symposium include webcasts of presentations Hannsgen, Greg E.and Papadimitriou, Dimitri B. Lessons from the New Deal: Did the new deals Lengthen or degenerate the ample Depression? work Paper No. 581, The Levy Economics initiate of panel College. October 2009
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California's extant new deals Project
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, database of the decide perform of the new deals in California new deal
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by Alan Brinkley on History.com Robert E. hit Collection.
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1892-1994. 60.42 blockish feet . At the Labor collect of Washington, University of Washington Libraries circumstantial Collections.
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Contains mercenary had by Robert E. hit on the new deals from 1932 to 1959. v
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